Populist Foreign Policy of Venezuela and Hungary: Post-Westernism and Its Limitations

No.2(2023)

Abstract
The global rise of populism has fuelled academic interest in how populism impacts international relations. The article argues that the post-Western international order as a context and its perceived opportunities strongly guide the foreign policy conduct of populist leaders regardless of their ideological background or geographical situation. The cases examined are Venezuela under Hugo Chávez (1999–2013) and Hungary under Viktor Orbán since 2010 (excluding his first term between 1998 and 2002). The research questions are as follows: (1) how does post-Westernism manifest itself in Chávista and Orbánist foreign policy and (2) what limitations do or did they face in terms of their post-Western foreign policies? The analysis is structured along three interrelated thematic lines of foreign policy making: populists’ conflicts with traditional (Western) powers¸ populists’ search for new partnerships in the non-Western world, and empowerment of regional institutions. Finally, the limitations of post-Westernism are explained on a comparative basis to highlight the contradictory features of populist foreign policy making in terms of loud short-term successes and silent long-term challenges.

Keywords:
populism; post-Westernism; foreign policy; Hungary; Venezuela
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