Methods of citation

Czech Journal of Political Science/Politologický časopis uses APA Style 6th Edition for the citations in articles. Footnotes, which are placed at the end of the contribution, must deal with content only; references to literature must be included in the text of the contribution.

References to sources must appear within rounded parentheses containing the author’s last name, date of publication, and page number where appropriate, after a full colon. Example: (Bolleyer, 2013, p. 15). If the cited source has three or more authors, the reference is given as follows: (Novák et al. 2003: p. 344). In the bibliography, the names of all authors should be mentioned. To distinguish between various publications by the same author from the same year, lower case letters are used: 2019a, 2019b, etc.

Directly cited passages must be presented in the same form as they appear in the original text (i.e., no italics or bold text should be used) and must be differentiated from the quotation marks (‘’). If a document has an organization as an author, then the organization name is used (European Commission, 2000).

The same rules apply for documents that are available only in electronic form on the Internet. If an online text with a clearly identifiable author is referred to, the reference is made in the above-specified manner. If no author is specified, instead of the author’s name, the title of the responsible organization is given, e.g.: (Transparency International, 2003). At the end of the contribution, a reference list including the literature and all other sources used within the article must be provided.

The bibliography must be organized in alphabetical order, and each entry must contain complete information about the source.

The following examples specify the required method of working with sources:

In-text citations:

A work by one Author: Name the author in the signal phrase or in parentheses everytime you cite the work, add pagination where appropriate.

As Bolleyer (2013) stresses…

(Bolleyer, 2013, p. 15)

(Bolleyer, 2013, pp. 15–25)

A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses each time you cite the work. Use ʻand’ between their names in the text. Use & in parentheses.

Research by Laver and Shepsle (1996) supports...

(Laver & Shepsle, 1996)


A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Use ʻand’ between their names. Use & in parentheses.

(Sorokhtin, Chilingar, Kozlov, & Shin, 2012)

In subsequent citations, only use the first author’s last name followed by ʻet al.’ in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

(Sorokhtin et al., 2012)


Six or More Authors: Use the first authors name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

Harris et al. (2001) argued...

(Harris et al., 2001)


Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: Order the works alphabetically, separated by a semi-colon.

(Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)


Authors With the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names.

(E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)


Organization as an author: if the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include it in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.

First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000)

Second citation: (MADD, 2000)


Text with no author: If the page’s author or organization author is not listed, start with the title instead.

(ʻWe like it on top,’ 2013)  


Not known date of publication: If the date of publication is not listed, use the abbreviation (n.d.).

(Roberts, n.d.)



Monograph (one author):

Author, F. M. (Year). Book title. City: Publisher.

E.g. Bolleyer, N. (2013). New Parties in Old Party Systems: Persistence and Decline in Seventeen Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Monograph (two authors):

Author, F. M., & Second, F. M. (Year). Book title. City: Publisher.

E.g. Laver, M., & Shepsle, K. A. (1996). Making and Breaking Governments: Cabinets and Legislatures in Parliamentary Democracies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Monograph (three to six authors):

Author, F. M., Second, F. M., & Third, F. M. (Year). Book title. City: Publisher.

Monograph (six and more authors):

Author, F. M., Second, F. M., Third, F. M., Fourth, F. M., Fifth, F. M., Sixth, F. M., …& Seventh, F. M. Book title. City, State: Publisher.

Edited book:

Editor, F. M. (Eds.). (Year). Book title. City: Publisher.

Andeweg, R. W., De Winter, L., & Dumont, P. (Eds.). (2011). Puzzles of government formation: coalition theory and deviant cases. New York: Routledge.

Chapter in an edited book:

Author, F. M. (Year). Title of chapter. In F. M. Editor, Book title (pagination). City: Publisher.

Elkind, J. (2010). Energy Security: Call for Broader Agenda. In C. Pascual & J. Elkind, Energy security: economics, politics, strategies, and implications (pp. 119-148). Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution Press.

Journal article:

Author, F. M. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), Page(s).

Moury, C. (2011). Coalition agreement and party mandate: How coalition agreements constrain the ministers. Party Politics17(3), 385-404.

Conference paper:

Author, F. M. (Year, Month). Title of paper. Paper presented at the Name of conference. Retrieved from URL.


Wentworth, D. (2012, November). E-learning at a glance. Paper presented at the Distance Education Conference. Retrieved from


Working paper:

Author, F. M. (Year). Title of document (Description, Number). Retrieved from Institution name website: URL.

Ragner, C. L. (2000). Northern Sea Route Cargo Flows and Infrastructure - Present State and Future Potentia (FNI Working paper No. 13). Retrieved from Fridtjof Nansen Institute website:


Author, F. M. (Year). Thesis title (Type of thesis). Retrieved from URL.

Louwerse, T. (2011). Political parties and the democratic mandate : comparing collective mandate fulfilment in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Document of an organization:

Name of organization. (Year). Title of document. City, State: Publisher.

European Commission. (1998). Report on the Czech Republic. Brussels: EU Publishing.

Document of an organization on Internet:

Name of organization. (Year). Title of document. Retrieved from URL.

Arctic Council. (2009). Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report. Retrieved from

Document of an organization with author:

Author, F. M. (Year). Title of document. Retrieved from Organization name website: URL.

Gorbunova, Y. (2013). Laws of attrition: Crackdown on Russia’s civil society after Putin’s return to the presidency. Retrieved from Human Rights Watch Website:


Author, F. M. (Year). Title of document (Report no.). Retrieved from Organization name website: URL.

Jensen, Ø. (2007). The IMO Guidelines for Ships Operating in Arctic Ice-covered Waters From Voluntary to Mandatory Tool for Navigation Safety and Environmental Protection? (Report no. 2). Retrieved from Fridtjof Nansen Institute website:

Newspaper article:

Author, F. M. (Year, Month Day published). Article title. Newspaper Title, Page(s).

Weston, C. (2019, January 6). Families pay €2,000 more to subsidise rates for new buyers. Irish Independent, p. 1.

In-text citation: (Weston, 2019)

On-line newspaper article:

Last, F. M., & Last, F. M. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from URL.

Baynes, C. (2019, February 25). Green snow falls on Russian city, sparking protests over pollution. Independent. Retrieved from

In-text citation: (Baynes, 2019)

Newspaper article with no author

Article title (Year, Month Day). Newspaper title. Retrieved from URL.

We like it on top... rising use of Northern Sea Route (2013, September 30). The Siberian Times. Retrieved from

In-text citation: (ʻWe like it on top,’ 2013)

Press release:

Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of document [Press release]. Retrieved from URL.

Gazprom Neft Press Office. (2015, February 20). Gazprom Neft Makes First Winter Shipment of Oil from Yamal [Press release]. Retrieved from

In-text citation: (Gazprom Neft Press Office, 2015)

Blog post:

Author, F.M. (Year, Month Day). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL.

Hanley, S. (2018, April 12). Poland’s secrets and lies [Blog post]. Retrieved from

In-text citation: (Hanley, 2018)


Author, F. M. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL.

Fields, J. (2012). Brene Brown on the power of being vulnerable [Video file]. Retrieved from

In-text citation: (Fields, 2012, 12:05)

Facebook status:

Author, F. M. (Year, Month, Day). Title [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from URL.

Obama, B. (2018, November 6). Today is the day. Today, it’s your turn to raise your voice to change the course of this country for the better. So make it count. Get out there and vote [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from

In-text citation: (Obama, 2018)

Text on web page:

Author, F. M. (Year). Article title. Retrieved from URL.

Williamson, J. (2018). Canada: Business culture. Retrieved from

Whole website:

Author, F. M. (Year). Title of website. Retrieved from URL.

Northern Sea Route Information Office. (n.d). Northern Sea Route Information Office. Retrieved from